Pollen and Spore Atlas

Sapindus saponaria SAPINDACEAE

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equatorial view
equatorial view
polar view
polar view
surface pattern
surface pattern
wall view
wall view
aperture view
aperture view
unique feature
unique feature


Pollen / Spore Morphologic Type(s) Surface Pattern(s) Equatorial Size Polar Size Equatorial Shape(s) Polar Shape(s)
min max mean min max mean
pollen tricolporate psilate 13.0 13.0 circular circular

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Aperture Count(s) 3
Pore Shape(s) circular
Pore Colpus(es) 3
Morphology Notes Tricolporate. Pore apertures round, equatorial on thin colpi. Exine thin approxinately 1um. Psilate tectum. Spheroidal small grain.

Ecology and Geography

Plant Type Cotyledon Type Floristic Region(s) Habit Terrestrial(s)
angiosperm dicot Hawaiian Islands,
East Pacific Islands,
Other outside Australasia

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Vegetation Community(-ties) open forest
Common Name Soapberry, Hawaiian soapberry, soapnut
Habitat Notes Native to South America, Mexico, New Caledonia and Africa. In Hawaii, Sapindus saponaria grows in moist forests on Hualalai, Mauna Loa, and Kilauea. It occurs naturally at elevations ranging from 2,900 to 4,500 feet (Wagner 1990) Found in stream banks, rocky hillsides, woody margins. In shallow soils it remains a small shrub, in deep soils can become a large tree up to more than 25 metres tall. (Identified in the fossil pollen record of KAO3 in Rano Kao and growing on the lake margin, 75 meters from lake edge, as a full tree 4m tall in March 2008 Gossen 2010)
Herbarium Link:


J. Leon 921

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Collection Site San Pablo de Nicoya
Collection Country Costa Rica
Collection Date 1942-01-01
Preparation Method Cor, KOH, acet, saf
Slide Medium silicon
Preparation Date 1975-05-16
Microscopic Instrument LEICA DMLB #188768
Collection Notes Processed at the Pollen Laboratory, University of Minnesota, USA from the collecton of Ed Cushing, slide ref. B551. Epoxy. F1416539